Xoloitzcuintli: Dog Breed Information

Country of origin: Mexico
Shoulder height: small (up to 35 cm), medium (up to 45 cm), large (up to 60 cm)
Age: 12 – 15 years
Color: black, grey, brown, bronze also spotted
Use: Companion dog, guard dog

The Xoloitzcuintli (short: Xolo, also: Mexican Hairless Dog ) comes from Mexico and belongs to the group of “primitive” dogs. Its special feature is its hairlessness. The Xolo is considered uncomplicated, adaptable, and intelligent. It is a very good guard and quite ready to defend. Since it is very easy to care for and unproblematic in training, it is also well suited as an apartment dog or as a companion dog for people with a dog allergy.

Origin and history

The Xoloitzcuintli is not a modern invention, but one of the oldest dog breeds on the American continent. Even the ancient Aztecs and Toltecs valued the Xolo – but as a sacrificial offering and delicacy. As representatives of the god Xolotl, the Xolos accompanied the souls of the deceased to their eternal resting place. Today it is one of the rarest breeds in the world.


The Xolo’s most obvious breed characteristic is that it is hairless. Occasional tufts of hair can only appear on the head and the tip of the tail. What is also striking about his appearance are its long “bat ears” and almond-shaped eyes. A special feature of the Xolo is also the absence of the front molars and the fact that it perspires through the skin and therefore rarely pants.

The color of the skin can be black, slate-grey, brown, or bronze, with pink or coffee-colored patches, also appearing. A newborn Xoloitzcuintli is pink, only after a year does it get its final shade. Light-colored Xolos may also freckle, sunburn, or darken in summer.

The Xoloitzcuintli is bred in three size classes: the smallest variant is only 25 – 35 cm tall, the medium size has a shoulder height of 35 – 45 cm and the large Xoloitzcuintli reaches 45 – 60 cm.


The Xoloitzcuintli is a quiet and calm dog. Like many primal dogs, they rarely bark. It is cheerful, attentive, and bright. It is suspicious of strangers and therefore makes a good guard dog. It is considered intelligent, uncomplicated, and easy to train.

Because it is hairless, he is a very easy to care for, clean, and almost odorless dog. Therefore, this breed can also be kept well in an apartment and is suitable as a companion dog for people who suffer from dog allergies or for disabled people for whom regular grooming is a problem.

Xolos do not require any physical activity but love all exercise and activity outdoors, and they are surprisingly tolerant of snow and cold as long as they move.

Mary Allen

Written by Mary Allen

Hello, I'm Mary! I've cared for many pet species including dogs, cats, guinea pigs, fish, and bearded dragons. I also have ten pets of my own currently. I've written many topics in this space including how-tos, informational articles, care guides, breed guides, and more.

Leave a Reply


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *