When many wild animals such as bears and wolves still lived in the Pyrenees in the Middle Ages, the large white Pyrenean mountain dogs were used as protectors of large herds of cattle. Thanks to their long, dense fur, which is extremely weather-resistant, they are ideal for livestock protection work in the harsh climate of the high-altitude Pyrenees. In order to survive in the sometimes dramatic duels with wolves or bears. the shepherds put spiked collars on them.
They often left two of these animals alone with the herd, knowing that one of the independently working, brave, and dutiful dogs was always on guard while the other rested. At the beginning of the 15th century, the dogs were also used and bred as guards at the castles of the Pyrenees, for example at the Château de Lordes. The court of Louis XIV also adorned itself with the presence of a Pyrenean mountain dog.